Various heating installations apply to heating of hotbeds and hothouses if necessary. That is why any gardener should aspire to that hotbeds and hothouses worked on biological heating. In comparison with heating installations it is many times cheaper, and the advantage for plants is difficult for overestimating, as for the account "уюЁхэш " biofuel the natural thermal exchange is created, carbonic acid necessary for plants is allocated, there is an evaporation to allocation of the water humidifying a ground that conducts to reduction polivov and concentration in vegetables of valuable nutrients.
, and, certainly, the best biological fuel for hotbeds manure, especially horse is Traditional. And than it is possible to replace so necessary manure on garden sites? In this business gardeners, and especially vegetable growers, have saved up a worth-while experiment. The exit has been found in use of many household and industrial wastes. These recipes are various enough.
Because this important question demands the qualified illumination, we offer some recommendations in a summary. Here not the full list house and industrial wastes which can be used as biofuel: straw dust, paper for recycling (a rag paper), to a fire (a waste of processing of a hemp and flax), luzgu (a waste of processing of sunflower), woollen oches (a waste of cloth and woollen factories), otdubinu (a waste of the tanning industry), kvasnuju grounds (a waste of factories of fruit juice and wines), peat, wood sawdust, etc.
It is necessary to remember that in a liquid waste it is necessary to add dry, and in dry - liquid. It is desirable to all these materials at their use as biological fuel to add at least a few manure from any pets which possesses property to support a heat in soil and can allocate heat two and even three months. It is possible to use for these purposes and manure of a bird, but with addition of straw or wood sawdust.
For those who has at least the small garden, the most accessible biofuel - wood leaves. Since autumn leaves should be laid in a hotbed on 30 - 40 sm above an edge parubnja and slightly to condense. It is possible to put leaves in heaps under a canopy, under a film or under floor-mats.
Before covering hotbeds with frames, leaves humidify, mixing, and for acceleration of process of burning in their several places water with hot water (2 - 3 buckets on a frame). On 6 - 7 day in a hotbed fill the earth a layer 8 - 10 Active burning of biofuel from leaves see lasts 35 - 40 days.
The Firm household waste - the paper, cardboard slices, straw and other dust after clearing of small stones, the rests of building materials, contains, as a rule, to 60% of organic substances. In this case it is necessary for gardeners to carry out a strict rule: a household waste and any dust can be used for heating of hotbeds only with the permission of sanitary inspection.
The Dust will well be warmed up, if its humidity 40 - 50%. Therefore before filling of hotbeds dry dust pile and water, and damp mix with straw, sawdust and other dry materials.
In the course of biothermal decomposition during 9 - 10 days the weight temperature rises to 60 - 65° in it pathogenic bacteria and eggs gelmintov (worms) perish. During this period also it is necessary to fill hotbeds.
Further temperature. Dust decreases to 40° also it is supported at this level within 50-55 days. It is quite enough this time for cultivation of sprouts and many early vegetables.
Any biofuel prepare since autumn. That it has not lost the properties before stuffing of hotbeds, biofuel with manure addition store in burtah which carefully condense trambovkoj, and leaves, dust, sawdust keep the dry. Prepare it for use as follows: for warming up biofuel touch vilami in friable heaps and if necessary humidify. Through 6 - 7 days when the temperature in a heap reaches 60 - 70° the foundation ditch of a hotbed or a hothouse clear of snow, on a bottom put sawdust or other dry material, and then equal layers, slightly condensing, stack razogretoe biofuel.
After stuffing the hotbed should be covered frames, then to impose on frames floor-mats. Through 3 - 5 days when biofuel in a hotbed will be warmed up and will even more strongly settle, add even a portion razogretogo biofuel. Through 2 - 3 days level all surface of a hotbed, pouring thus a small amount to exhaust. And only after that fill the earth. The Earth for hotbeds should be easy, cespitose or made of peat, humus and the cespitose earth (on 7см everyone making). Prepare it since autumn from calculation 0,25 mg on one hotbed frame. The Earth should be well sifted, and to put it it is necessary an equal layer in the thickness from 4 to 5 sm - for cultivation of sprouts and 10 - 12 sm for cultivation of vegetables.
When in a hotbed after zasypki the temperature will reach the earths 20 - 25° sow seeds or land the sprouts prepared in a hothouse. In the absence of a hothouse in a hotbed first of all grow up sprouts for sites of an open ground, and then early vegetables.
Hotbed frames cover at the beginning floor-mats. If they are not present, use any warming material.
Some words about floor-mats. Floor-mats absolutely necessary accessory of a garden economy. If you have got a hothouse economy, that, without losing time, start their manufacturing. They are necessary for shelter of hotbeds, hothouses, kompostnyh heaps, time burtov. They protect from a cold and from strong winds. Moreover, directly on them it is possible to grow up sprouts.
It is possible to do Floor-mats of a cane, rye straw, a bast mat, a sacking. Bunches of straw or a cane of the necessary length display on a wooden frame and bind a twine. An old polyethylene film, unusable for shelter of hothouses and other economic needs, it is possible to use also for manufacturing of floor-mats. For this purpose on the piece of a film corresponding to the size of this or that hotbed or a hothouse, an equal layer impose straw, a cane, corn or sunflower stalks. A lining layer close other layer of a film of the same size. Then by means of the thick and long needles specially made for these purposes, this "ъютхЁ" stitch a twine. Such waterproof floor-mats - irreplaceable protection of hotbed constructions against rains and sleet.
In the conclusion is considered to tell necessary that very many necessary and important councils for a garden site have not found reflexion in this section, as recommendation on themes: placing of cultures on a site, soil processing under seeds, fertilizers, in particular, reception of composts, protection against wreckers and illnesses, ways of cultivation of various plants and many other purely agronomical themes were not included into the plan and a profile of the present edition. Each gardener and the truck farmer will find the necessary material in the special periodic literature and numerous grants from which our councils are taken.