Building begins with a marking of contours of the house. This work is carried out by the master to whom building is entrusted. Here here can make the efforts not only the owner of a site, but also all members of a family. Works as all will suffice. On the marked area the remained plants are dug out, the soil layer leaves, the place where there will be a house is carefully levelled and cleared.
Then the master marks the base. For a marking use boards which drive in on width of the base by means of pegs.
After that labour-consuming and long work - foundation ditch preparation under the base follows. Needless to say, here is where to put hands to all efficient members of a family.
The Foundation ditch is ready. If it is dug out in a loose ground, it needs to be fixed boards, floor-mats, etc. That its size has not changed. In a strong ground which is not showered, the foundation ditch needs to be dug precisely on the sizes of the base.
The Dug out ground if necessary at once take out. If there is no such necessity the taken out ground level on distance 1 - 2 m from a foundation ditch.
It is desirable to reduce extremely time between digging of a foundation ditch and a base apportion. It needs to be put at once as soon as the foundation ditch, as rains, osypanie soils, etc. will be ready. Negatively influence durability of the future base.
Business of the master to define depth of the base. Usually it should correspond to depth promerzanija soils of the given climatic zone.
Only the expert can define a base design. The fast and economic way of underpinning under small constructions is a construction of the base from butobetona. Such base under the direction of the master can be concreted the hands. It is possible to do the bases and stone, and also of other materials, suitable for these purposes. In each case last word remains for the master erecting the house.
The Following stage in building - isolation packing.
On the cleared and levelled subfoundation put an impregnation layer. When impregnation will dry up, impose serially three layers of bitumen mastic between which it is put izoljatsionnyj a cardboard. Linings from izoljatsionnogo a cardboard should act from the wall basis on 3 - 10 sm and to be imposed vnahlestku 15 see Horizontal isolation of the bases it is necessary to connect to horizontal isolation of internal walls of partitions and floors If it is necessary to arrange vertical isolation, it also needs to be connected with horizontal izoljatsionnymi linings.
This work demands attentiveness, strict observance of processing methods. The builder at this stage can carry out a role of the ancillary worker.
For izoljatsionnymi works floor packing follows. As a rule, a ground floor floor project at height not less than 40 - 50 sm from soil level. Then, since this height, capital external walls and partitions are constructed. Perhaps, it is the most responsible work. High quality of a laying can provide, only the highly skilled mason. But it does not mean that here there will be no work for the builder. On the contrary, for it it is a lot of work. It brings and submits a solution, transfers building woods, etc.
Correctly put wall should be absolutely perpendicular. Therefore accuracy and correctness of a laying need to be supervised often, i.e. To check through every second or the third row. Check make with the help vaterpasa, frames, rejki, a cord or a plumb.
The Width of longitudinal and cross-section seams of a laying should make approximately 1 Seams see fill with a solution. Apply the limy and cement-limy (mixed) solutions more often.
For All are known podmosti without which any building does not manage. A laying of walls at height about 1 m make with podmostej. In house building the builder should watch stability podmostej and regularly clear them of a solution.
The Brick in walls can be stacked in the various image. A number of the bricks laid along walls by the long party, is called lozhkovym, or a laying in a half-brick. A number of the bricks laid along a wall by the short party, is called tychkovym, or a laying in one brick.
The Main rule of a laying: in everyone to a number bricks should be displaced concerning the bottom number, at least on a quarter of the length then stykovochnye seams of numbers will not settle down the friend over the friend and the solution will better fix a laying that provides to a wall rigidity and durability.
The Solution put not only on the laid number of bricks, but also sideways them that by a solution have been filled vertical stykovochnye seams between bricks.
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