At a site choice under a kitchen garden the open site well shined with the sun located from a South side from structures and plantings, with an equal relief and a southern bias, and also a close source of water for poliva is recommended first of all.
However so ideal site under a kitchen garden not always and not everywhere is possible. And on this case we do the reservation that the truck farmer who is not receding before difficulties, can make an exemplary kitchen garden even on the thrown waste ground which has been cluttered up with rubble, building dust. For this purpose it is enough to clean all this stuff, to bring cespitose soil and to introduce in it fertilizers. Large slopes can be cut in the form of terraces, soil with a superficial layer to cultivate, that is deeply to dig over it and regularly to fertilise.
It is a lot of Examples of enthusiasm and love of vegetable growers to the business. And in this work we will shortly tell about the best achievements in the subsequent recommendations. Vegetable growers first of all should know mechanical structure of soil on the site. What is it? And in what laboratory it is necessary to find out soil structure.
In any laboratory to you it is not necessary to address. Experts recommend simple and reliable ways for definition of mechanical structure of soil.
Take a soil handful, humidify it and try to roll a ball. If it is scattered, soil sandy if soil sandy, the ball rolls down, but it is impossible to make any figure of it. If from an earth ball it will turn out tsilindrik, the soil clay means. But here you have decided to bend tsilindrik, and it has thus cracked. It is a sure sign of that before you loam.
Take the earths more, moisten it and try to mould from it rings, plaits, etc. If they easily keep the form and do not burst, means, the soil on your site heavy, rich with clay and, hence, demands special attention for improvement and fertilizer.
How it to make? Here what councils are given by the candidate of agricultural sciences V.D.Davidov.
Heavy clay soils can be cultivated, bringing straw manure, composts, sand, the cespitose earth, mineral fertilizers (behind an exception natrievoj saltpeter). In the autumn such soils dig over, without breaking large clods.
In pojmah the rivers clay soils happen strongly humidified or boggy, and therefore here it is necessary to arrange a drainage. Define a bias direction, dig in this direction of a flute on depth zaleganija ground waters, enclose in them tubes or fill up their gravel, a pebble, crocks, and from above soil. All ditches should converge in one ditch located in the lowermost place. It is a collector, it comes to an end with a sediment bowl - deeper hole in which superfluous water will accumulate. It can be used in the summer for poliva or to take away in streams, ravines, small rivers and other water intakes.
Sour soils happen mainly on the inundated earths to high humidity. To acidity definition apply a special display paper which can be bought in shops of chemical reactants.
It is possible to define and by means of national signs. A characteristic sign of the raised acidity of soil is presence on it of a considerable quantity shchavelja and a horsetail. That soil sour, it is possible to judge also on a similar whitish layer lying down on small depth to ashes.
However it is necessary to have the exact answer concerning acidity degree. And it is better for making in agrohimlaboratorijah. Such laboratories are now at each school.
To improvement of sour soils apply liming - entering slaked and not slaked to exhaust or wood ashes from calculation of 10 m 2 . It is possible to apply also dolomite, a chalk, martin and domain slags, a marl, karbidnuju izvest and many other limy materials. The dose of their entering depends on acidity and mechanical structure of soil - on lungs of sandy it reduce, on heavy clay - increase.
To Bring them is better in the early autumn, Ashes can be applied at any time.
Solontsy, and solonetzic soils. Signs solontsov; in the spring soil long "эх ёючЁхтрх=" it is smeared, and, having dried up, becomes firm and difficultly gives in to processing. To improve such soils very difficultly as they are sated natrievymi by salts.
For neutralisation harmful natrievyh salts bring on 3 - 6 kg melkomolotogo plaster on 10 m 2 . Good results are given by a combination of plaster to manure, but the sequence thus should be observed: in the first year plaster, in the second - manure is given. In the autumn after perekopki a site bring plaster, scattering it on a surface and slightly closing up a rake.
To Improve solontsy it is possible to exhaust also by entering, glinogipsa, chloride calcium, a weak solution of sulfuric acid. But these materials are less effective, than plaster.
On small sites of good results it is possible to achieve zemlevaniem solonetzic soils - drawing of a fertile soil by the thickness 20 see If for any reason of it it is impossible to make, it is possible to dig lunki depth 30 - 35 sm and, having filled with their good earth, to land sprouts or to sow seeds of the plants demanding the big area of a food (cucumbers, pumpkins, corn, etc.).
Sandy the soil badly keeps water and nutrients. For its improvement on small sites it is necessary to skim on 40 - 50 sm, on a bottom to lay a layer of clay or the clay earth (10 - 15 sm), and then again to fill the removed soil, having mixed it with peat, manure, mineral fertilizers. The clay layer interferes with washing away of nutrients from the top layers of earth. Instead of clay it is possible to apply roofing felt or a polyethylene film.
Sometimes on all site it is necessary to update a ground a layer 30 - 40 see For this purpose is better to take cespitose soil from meadows or to prepare sheet and kompostnuju the earth.
And now again we will return to cares of gardeners.