In this section we will talk only about a choice for a garden of fruit breeds and grades as economic valuable signs inherent in a grade grow out of influence of the person on the biological nature of a plant.
In "РяЁртюёэшъх ёрфютюфр" under edition of the doctor of agricultural sciences of professor V.K.Zajtsa it is said that by definition And. V.Michurin the grade solves success of all business: "...ёюЁ= represents the plant improved by the person, capable to give the big crop and more quality in comparison with low-grade яюёрфърьш". And it, really, so for without good grades there is no good garden. The big productivity and high quality of the fruits which are grown up in a garden, is defined by its high-quality structure. Therefore before to put a garden, it is necessary to pick up correctly for it the best grades for each breed.
The State and collective-farm nurseries grow up saplings of tens fruit breeds (an apple-tree, a pear, a quince, plum, a cherry plum, an apricot, a peach, a sweet cherry, a cherry, a fig, a pomegranate, a persimmon, grapes, a walnut, almonds, a filbert, a mountain ash, ordinary and chernoplodnaja, a gooseberry, a black, white and red currant, garden krupnoplodnaja wild strawberry and others), and some grades of each such breed are zoned for the given area and a zone, area.
It is quite clear that it is necessary for each owner of an individual garden to distribute fruit and berry plants so that need of a family in fresh fruits, berries, vegetables and in products of their processing it was satisfied on an extent of probably longer period of year.
In a garden it is necessary to have different breeds of fruit-trees: apple-trees, pears, cherries, sweet cherries, plums, and there where environmental conditions, also apricots and peaches allow. It is necessary in each garden and jagodnik - wild strawberry, a raspberry, a currant, a gooseberry.
Each breed in priusadebnom should be presented a garden grades of different terms of maturing - from the earliest to the latest. It does not mean that it is necessary to have many grades. Even, if them will be a little, it is desirable, that they did not repeat each other on maturing term, and kept up at various times and in this respect each other supplemented.
Except fruit and berry plants, in a garden it is necessary to grow up such vysokovitaminnye and medical plants a mountain ash chernoplodnaja, limonnik, a guelder-rose, sea-buckthorn berries, etc.
As it has already been told, in a garden it is recommended to put the breeds zoned in the field and grades. It is possible to select also grades from among zoned in next (relatives for territory) areas. At selection of grades of an apple-tree, a pear and other fruit crops it is necessary to prefer grades skoroplodnym, slaboroslym and steadier against illnesses struggle with which in the conditions of a small individual garden is rather inconvenient.
We do not put the purpose to tell in detail about grades of many fruit and berry cultures. We will refer besides to the special literature on these questions in which the science - pomologija or fruit sortovyvedenie is stated.
To Each gardener especially beginning, we urgently recommend to get acquainted more close with pomologiej as this science is engaged in all-round studying of grades in the various it is soil-environmental conditions for the purpose of selection of best of them for industrial cultivation in certain areas of the country. It just that is necessary for you, dear readers.
We will short tell only about the most widespread fruit crop - an apple-tree as it enjoys the person popularity at fans-gardeners. And every year there are the new grades deduced by selectors.
In southern areas apple-trees of high-quality grades - Renet Simirenko, Dzhonatan, the Paper rennet, Rosemary, Aport Almaty, Kalvil snow, Wagner, Parmen winter gold and others well grow ripe.
The apple-tree also well grows In areas of the Center, Belarus, Baltic, but grades already others: Antonovka, Cinnamon, Pepin shafrannyj, Melba, the Anise, Papirovka.
In areas of the North, Ural Mountains, Siberia and the Far East grow in the open form (without shelter) only rather melkoplodnye grades - Renetki and local winter-hardy hybrid forms.
The Fatal mistake is supposed by gardeners-fans, getting a material in areas where environmental conditions sharply differ from a place of their future growth.
Many gardeners-fans of northern areas try to get saplings of thermophilic fruit plants - an apricot, a sweet cherry, a walnut and others, and southerners get a gooseberry, a black currant, etc.
Eventually, both those and others happen are disappointed by that that thermophilic plants in the north freeze, and the berry plants giving a good harvest in northern widths, badly grow and do not fructify almost in the south. Therefore saplings should be got in the nearest nursery.
In a collective amateur garden it is possible to have the big set of fruit breeds and the grades cultivated in area, - apple-trees, winter, autumn and summer grades, cherries, plums and jagodnikov.
From berry cultures everywhere well grows and the wild strawberry fructifies garden krupnoplodnaja. The wild strawberry - a plant evergreen, it does not dump leaves in the autumn. Therefore it is very important, that they have been as soon as possible covered by snow. Then they do not perish. And in the early spring as soon as snow will descend, continue the ability to live.
Beginning gardeners-fans should remember that with the landing material brought from other areas, it is possible to bring in a garden of dangerous wreckers and illness and to cause a heavy damage not only, not only the garden collective, but also the whole agricultural area.